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The nutritional value of seaweed
Seaweed is rich in protein, essential amino acids, iodine content several times or even several hundred times higher than plant feed, a large number of non nitrogen containing organic compounds (about 30% - 60%), special bioactive components and unknown growth factors (UGF), chlorophyll and other pigments. Seaweed is rich in Fe, Mn, Cu, I, Zn and other minerals. Most of the minerals and trace elements (20% - 30%) contained in seaweed are in the form of organic state, which is not easy to oxidize. Its biological potency is high. Seaweed organic minerals are more conducive to the absorption of pigs. Most of the fatty acids are unsaturated fatty acids, accounting for 50% - 70% of the total fatty acids, mainly linolenic acid, hypolinolenic acid and eicosenoic acid (EPA). Seaweeds contain many kinds of vitamins, such as vitamin A, vitamin C, vitamin E and vitamin B 1, B 2, B 3, B 12, etc.
Study on the application of seaweed feed in pig production
The main feeding value of seaweed is to use the bioactive substances such as seaweed polysaccharide, mannitol, acrylic acid, nucleosides, terpenes, macrolides and so on. The research shows that seaweed feed has the biological functions of enhancing the immunity, antibacterial, antiviral and promoting the growth of pigs.
2.1 improve immunity and antibacterial effect
Seaweed polysaccharide can improve immunity. Seaweed has the function of immune stimulation and anti-inflammatory of seaweed sulfated polysaccharide (MSP). It has active anti-virus function, such as activating cytokines in lymphocytes. It has significant anticoagulant performance and anti-tumor activity. Its nutrition has a positive impact on human and pig health. There are three advantages of MSP: first, it is easy to react; second, it has many functions because of the existence of sulfuric acid radicals; third, it is unique because there is no MSP in higher plants. Li Yingquan et al. (1995) orally administered fucoidan to mice. It was found that the weight of immune organs and hemolysin in peripheral serum of mice were increased; sodium alginate, fucoidan starch and fucoidan could improve non-specific immune function; Porphyra polysaccharide and Ulva polysaccharide could also improve the immunity of pigs. Seaweed polysaccharide can also be used as functional fiber
Other prebiotic supplements.
There are acrylic acid, terpenes, brominated phenols and marine sulfate polysaccharide (MSP) in seaweeds, which have antibacterial effects, and can reduce the adverse effects of mycotoxins on the reproduction, growth and health of pigs. Marine sulfate polysaccharide (MSP) can promote the secretion of intestinal mucin, which determines the intestinal health of piglets because it can absorb some viruses and inhibit the adhesion of different pathogenic bacteria on the intestinal wall. The growth and development of the digestive tract villi of piglets are very fragile, and the balance of the flora is easily broken, which leads to the imbalance of the flora. Strengthening the digestive tract on the first day of Piglet's birth can ensure the normal development of the digestive tract, and avoid the occurrence of digestive tract diseases such as weaning. Sargassin complex can inhibit Staphylococcus aureus and macrophyte
Growth of Enterobacter and Proteus vulgaris. The bromophenols and terpenes in P. polynodosa, Ulva, P. chelonicera and P. obtuseum have the characteristics of antibiotics. The antimicrobial substances in seaweeds will not make bacteria resistant, and will not cause adverse effects on the environment.
Seaweed powder can improve the resistance to disease and stress of pigs. Liu Chunren (1996) and others found that seaweed powder can reduce the incidence of pigs by 5%. Rooke et al. (2003) added seaweed powder to sows' diets, which increased the content of IgG in serum of weaned piglets. Some data show that adding 4% seaweed powder to the feed of lactating sows can increase the lactation of sows, speed up the growth and development of piglets, increase the weaning weight, increase the survival rate of piglets, and reduce the incidence of diseases. Jimei University (2008) applied seaweed nutrition enhancer in pig diet. The results showed that the health of pigs was significantly improved, the physique was healthy and lively, the incidence of disease was reduced, and it had immune promoting effect. Su Xiaojian et al. (2011, Translated) adding seaweed powder to the diets of sows on the 109th day of pregnancy until weaning of piglets can increase the content of IgG in colostrum of sows, and the content of IgG in serum of piglets on the 5th and 12th day of birth also increased, further proving that adding seaweed powder to the diets of sows can enhance the immune function of piglets.